The report looks at the impact of subsidies and reform to kerosene and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) from a gender perspective across three countries (Bangladesh, India and Nigeria). The research was based around two overall research questions namely ‘How do existing kerosene and LPG subsidy policies affect the welfare, productivity and empowerment of women and girls in low-income households?’ and ‘How might the welfare, productivity and empowerment of women and girls in low-income households change as a result of specific, nationally relevant proposals for the reform of existing kerosene and LPG subsidies?’ These questions were explored using secondary data, household surveys across the three countries, reaching over 2,400 households, and focus group discussions. The questions were answered within the context of hypotheses made during the scoping phase and literature review for the research, based on a review of 28 reform episodes. This research attempted to answer the above questions in relation to an income effect, energy use effect and an energy supply effect, from a gender perspective.
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